Breakthroughy Truthiness Prize – Life ‘MIGHT’ Be Emergent

by Tommy on 5/12/2016

The Cosmic Evolution of Autobiogenesis

http://lifeform.net/archimedes/Cosmic_Evolution.pdf

That’s the funniest takeaway from last evening’s festivities.

Besides all of the tuxedos, the limousines and the private jet aircraft.

Udo Seifert’s stochastic energetics guarantees it. James Crutchfield proved it.

And of course the breaking of time reversal symmetry made it happen.

It has little if anything to do with RNA. That came much later.

Oh … the humanity! The blobbyness!

Welcome to the pseudogap.

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String Theory Has No Connection To Experimental Reality

by Tommy on 5/12/2016

Breakthroughy truthiness has spoken in the post-truth fact free world.

They do it for the money. I get that now.

Black holes are lucrative too.

To the catholic church.

Update: The irony of all this, is what I have done for all of these string theorists with the gravitationally flexible cosmic QCD axion is simply push their theories up the the Planck scale and into the black holes and downshifted their simulations into the clever tabletop laboratory gonkulaters. The infamous real world. Condensed matter physics theory and experiment.

Cold and harsh, but that’s the way it is.

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Dark Matter Curvatons in a Double Cosmic Inflation Scenario

by Tommy on 4/12/2016

It took me a while to slog through this. The model is a bit ad hoc, and the math oversimplied with lots of speculative assumptions. But I must say I like the idea of a double inflation now. The only sense I an make out of all of this is that the great fall from the Planck scale to the Higgs scale is the secondary inflation, either accompanied by or followed by the reheating of the quark gluon particle plasma flux. In this case initial inflation event represents the entire Einstein mass energy equivalent of all of the gravitational field of space (time) itself, along with all of the mass energy equivalent of the dark matter and baryons contained within it. That’s a whole lotta stuff. Wow.

https://arxiv.org/abs/1611.08975

Curvaton as dark matter with secondary inflation, Jinn-Ouk Gong, Naoya Kitajima and Takahiro Terada, APCTP Pre2016-022, KIAS-P16084 (28 November 2016)

We consider a novel cosmological scenario in which a curvaton is long-lived and plays the role of cold dark matter (CDM) in the presence of a short, secondary inflation. Non-trivial evolution of the large scale cosmological perturbation in the curvaton scenario can affect the duration of the short term inflation, resulting in the inhomogeneous end of inflation. Non-linear parameters of the curvature perturbation are predicted to be fNL ~ 5/4 and gNL ~ 0. The curvaton abundance can be well diluted by the short-term inflation and accordingly, it does not have to decay into the Standard Model particles. Then the curvaton can account for the present CDM with the isocurvature perturbation being sufficiently suppressed because both the adiabatic and CDM isocurvature perturbations have the same origin. As an explicit example, we consider the thermal inflation scenario and a string axion as a candidate for this curvaton-dark matter. We further discuss possibilities to identify the curvaton-dark matter with the QCD axion.

I have to tell you that my mind is really completely boggled now.

So I guess it’s a big bang followed by a little bang.

Followed by a whole lotta hot non-nothing.

Cool. I like this already.

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Chern Simons Axion Physics Coupling Theorem Explored

by Tommy on 4/12/2016

This is a nice clean presentation of axion physics in condensed matter physics systems.

https://arxiv.org/abs/1611.08109

Surface theorem for the Chern-Simons axion coupling, Thomas Olsen, Maryam Taherinejad, David Vanderbilt and Ivo Souza (24 November 2016)

The Chern-Simons axion coupling of a bulk insulator is only defined modulo a quantum of e2/h. The quantized part of the coupling is uniquely defined for a bounded insulating sample, but it depends on the specific surface termination. Working in a slab geometry and representing the valence bands in terms of hybrid Wannier functions, we show how to determine that quantized part from the excess Chern number of the hybrid Wannier sheets located near the surface of the slab. The procedure is illustrated for a tight-binding model consisting of coupled quantum anomalous Hall layers. By slowly modulating the model parameters, it is possible to transfer one unit of Chern number from the bottom to the top surface over the course of a cyclic evolution of the bulk Hamiltonian. When the evolution of the surface Hamiltonian is also cyclic, the Chern pumping is obstructed by chiral touchings between valence and conduction surface bands.

All your model are belong to us.

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Santa Was An Unfortunate Accidental Misspelling of Satan

by Tommy on 4/12/2016

Celebrate Bad Evil Satan Day

Bad Evil Satan Santa Day

Bad Evil Satan Santa Day

It’s your fake and fraudulent religion and religious holiday.

Enjoy your ill gotten gains while you’ve got them.

Santa will be back for your soul.

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Loren Thompson Makes Forbes Look Like Breitbart

by Tommy on 4/12/2016

Forbes Magazine can’t be happy with Loren Thompson dumbing them down to Breitbart.

http://www.forbes.com/sites/lorenthompson/2016/12/02/how-president-trump-can-avert-a-crisis-in-u-s-space-policy/#a31046f32821

How President Trump Can Avert A Crisis In U.S. Space Policy

By Loren Thompson Writing for Forbes Magazine.

Just keep the gravy and pork flowing.

Heckava job there Mr. Forbes.

Mouthpiece for failure.

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Freedom Will Die a Very Quick Death Under Jeff Sessions

by Tommy on 2/12/2016

You’ll just have to trust me on this one too. America – Insane in the Mem Brain.

Constitutionally guaranteed and protected American freedom of expression is great, no?

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Science Now Shows That Drugs Are Good and Religion is Bad

by Tommy on 2/12/2016

It’s official now. Both Psilocybin and MMDA ecstasy are effective therapies, as are many others.

Life on Earth is both difficult, and ultimately fatal, on a planet infested with insane religious nuts. Drugs make this situation, living on a world filled with terrible illnesses, greedy corporations, easily available weapons, endless wars, gangsters and mafia thugs, toxic emissions, blatant fascism, evil dictators and insane criminal theocrats, just barely tolerable. So lets all give Mr. Jeff Sessions a big FUCK YOU flip off. Your world is long gone, Mr. Maybe Attorney General.

I will not let you destroy the shitty world we still have left to salvage from assholes like yourself.

Religion is Bad, Drugs are Good.

Religion is Bad, Drugs are Good.

http://jop.sagepub.com/content/30/12/1181

Psilocybin produces substantial and sustained decreases in depression and anxiety in patients with life-threatening cancer: A randomized double-blind trial, Roland R Griffiths, Matthew W Johnson, Michael A Carducci, Annie Umbricht, William A Richards, Brian D Richards, Mary P Cosimano, Margaret A Klinedinst, Journal of Psychopharmacology, 30, 12, 1181-1197 (December 2016), doi:10.1177/0269881116675513

Cancer patients often develop chronic, clinically significant symptoms of depression and anxiety. Previous studies suggest that psilocybin may decrease depression and anxiety in cancer patients. The effects of psilocybin were studied in 51 cancer patients with life-threatening diagnoses and symptoms of depression and/or anxiety. This randomized, double-blind, cross-over trial investigated the effects of a very low (placebo-like) dose (1 or 3 mg/70 kg) vs. a high dose (22 or 30 mg/70 kg) of psilocybin administered in counterbalanced sequence with 5 weeks between sessions and a 6-month follow-up. Instructions to participants and staff minimized expectancy effects. Participants, staff, and community observers rated participant moods, attitudes, and behaviors throughout the study. High-dose psilocybin produced large decreases in clinician- and self-rated measures of depressed mood and anxiety, along with increases in quality of life, life meaning, and optimism, and decreases in death anxiety. At 6-month follow-up, these changes were sustained, with about 80% of participants continuing to show clinically significant decreases in depressed mood and anxiety. Participants attributed improvements in attitudes about life/self, mood, relationships, and spirituality to the high-dose experience, with >80% endorsing moderately or greater increased well-being/life satisfaction. Community observer ratings showed corresponding changes. Mystical-type psilocybin experience on session day mediated the effect of psilocybin dose on therapeutic outcomes.

I love science and chemistry, it makes life worth living sometimes.

Life is a lot better at it than we are.

Drugs good, religion bad.

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Weyl Semimetals, Fermi Arcs and Chiral Anomalies Reviewed

by Tommy on 2/12/2016

Hasan is a leader of this field, but only because his name is recognizable.

https://arxiv.org/abs/1612.00416

http://www.nature.com/nmat/journal/v15/n11/full/nmat4787.html

Weyl Semimetals, Fermi Arcs and Chiral Anomalies (A Short Review), Shuang Jia, Su-Yang Xu, and M. Zahid Hasan, Nature Materials, 15, 1140-1144 (25 October 2016), DOI:10.1038/nmat4787

Physicists have discovered a novel topological semimetal, the Weyl semimetal, whose surface features a non-closed Fermi surface while the low energy quasiparticles in the bulk emerge as Weyl fermions. Here they share a brief review of the development and present perspectives on the next step forward.

So this has been fun over the last few years.

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Christianity Will Die a Very Quick Death Under Lamar Smith

by Tommy on 1/12/2016

You’ll just have to trust me on that.

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I Guess I am Now Officially a Science and Physics Disruptor

by Tommy on 1/12/2016
Science Physics Disruptor Disrupting Disruption

Science Physics Disruptor Disrupting Disruption

Those are my new favorite words now.

This is going to be great fun.

But it won’t be pretty.

Science never is.

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The Master’s Thesis of Molly Rebecca Sexton at Oklahoma

by Tommy on 30/11/2016

This isn’t a very definitive Master’s thesis result, and it certainly isn’t PhD grade, but it is admirable that they all took the time to look into these nanodiamonds more closely. That being said, this doesn’t bode well for the Younger Dryas boundry layer sediments and sedimentary nanodiamonds, anywhere in the sedimentary record at all, so I guess I will all have to wait for more definitive results on this subject. It would be great if anyone could definitively identify and demonstrate the existence of sedimentary nanodiamonds, besides at known impact sites.

https://shareok.org/bitstream/handle/11244/34605/2016_Sexton_Molly_Thesis.pdf?sequence=2&isAllowed=y

Statigraphic and Textural Analysis of Nanodiamonds Across the Younger Dryas Boundary Sediments of Western Oklahoma, Molly Rebecca Sexton, Master’s Thesis, Andrew Elwood Madden, Advisor, The University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma (2016)

Exposed sediment profiles of the panhandle of western Oklahoma have previously been shown to contain two peak abundances of nanodiamonds, one dated approximately to the Younger Dryas and the other from the Late Holocene. The sediments of the Bull Creek Valley contain numerous Clovis culture artifacts and megafauna remains that disappeared after the Younger Dryas Boundary Layer. Firestone et al. have proposed that the reason for this sudden disappearance is a bolide impact that broke apart in the atmosphere, scattering debris across the world (2007).

Nanodiamonds could be evidence for such an impact. In this study, I examined 12 additional samples collected at the same time as those reported by Bement et al. (2014) but not analyzed for nanodiamond content using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). These samples were collected at various locations along the same Bull Creek valley, Oklahoma, including sediments older than those analyzed by Bement et al. (2014) and an additional nearby location that crosses the Younger Dryas Boundary. No nanodiamonds were found in these samples. However, the results may not be indicative of the true nanodiamond abundance. In a further test, a grid was prepared from a sediment digest solution shown by Bement et al. (2014) to have a peak abundance of nanodiamonds. No nanodiamonds were observed in this sample, suggesting that the nanodiamonds may have a finite lifetime when preserved in an ammonium hydroxide suspension. Additionally, Raman spectroscopy was investigated and ruled out as a means of screening samples for nanodiamond content more quickly and easily. Prepared samples of sediment solution previously confirmed to have nanodiamonds showed no Raman peaks associated with diamonds, though this could also have been the result of the ammonium hydroxide suspension storage. However, samples of untreated commercial nanodiamonds also did not exhibit any characteristic diamond peaks, though possible peaks may have been obscured by heavy fluorescence.

Finally, the samples that were confirmed by Bement et al. (2014) to have nanodiamonds were divided into groups based on the ages of their sediments and highresolution (HRTEM) images of them were examined for the textures of individual grains in order to gain a better insight of how they may have formed. The textures were categorized as having no lattice fringes, partial fringes, continuous fringes, linear twins, nonlinear twins, or star twins. The nanodiamond grains in the Younger Dryas Boundary group had the lowest ratio of linear to nonlinear grains and one of the highest ratios of star twins to twins, both of which are indicative of a chemical vapor deposition formation mechanism.

This is the first study to analyze and compare nanodiamond textures from the same stratigraphic area. The differences found between the older and younger nanodiamonds suggests that further studies comparing textures across spatial and temporal boundaries could lead to more definite signatures indicative of their origins.

It’s a start, again, I guess. Hopefully she will look at it again, for her PhD.

Unless, of course, sedimentary impact nanodiamonds don’t exist.

That could very well be true, but I don’t see how.

Maybe they just all burn up in the air.

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Dark Matter Crackpots and Crank Magnets Hit The Internets

by Tommy on 30/11/2016

I predicted this would happen a year ago.

The Topological Axion PhD Thesis of Ken Shiozaki at Kyoto

http://cosmic.lifeform.org/the-topological-axion-phd-thesis-of-ken-shiozaki-at-kyoto/

Edward Witten Topological Field Theory and Order on the ArXiv

http://cosmic.lifeform.org/edward-witten-topological-field-theory-and-order-on-the-arxiv/

First there is Natalie Wolchover at Quanta Magazine, a science reporter so mathematically inept that she couldn’t distinguish an axion from a WIMP, who reads a bunch of pulp magazine reporting on Eric Verlinde’s crank gravity theory, and since she could not possibly understand the reasoning contained within, she immediately declares dark matter dead. No Quanta for me.

The Case Against Dark Matter, by Natalie Wolchover of Quanta Magazine

https://www.quantamagazine.org/20161129-verlinde-gravity-dark-matter/

The self admitted and self appointed dark matter expert Natalie Wolchover has spoken.

I’m giving up on the axions, clearly they don’t exist.

What a difference a year makes.

More on this as I have time.

It gets much worser.

And even betterer.

Update: And as promised, here it is. Betterer and betterest.

Another article hot on the heels of a bunch of articles by the world renowned dark matter expert.

Natalie Wolchover, resident quantum gravity physics expert at Quanta Magazine.

https://www.quantamagazine.org/20161201-quantum-gravitys-time-problem/

Quantum Gravity’s Time Problem, by Natalie Wolchover, of Quanta Magazine.

Mathematician, physicist and koolaide connoisseur extraordinaire.

The money must be very good at Quanta Magazine.

Of course she banned me now.

Update 2: She didn’t ban me!

My comment was posted at exactly 4:20 PM, that is so awesome.

She’s really digging the entropic gravity thing.

But I threw my lot in with the axions.

After a whole lotta research.

Update 3: Note that in a previous incarnation of ‘The Blob‘ I have defined the ‘lotta’ as the metric prefix for the numerical value of 1027 That was after I defined (sorry, I mean named) the SI unit of momentum as the ‘Fritz‘, denoted by the symbol ‘I‘ and equivalent to the SI units of kg m/s.

http://cosmic.lifeform.org/i-tommy-im-naming-the-si-unit-of-momentum-after-myself/

A zillion here and a zillion there, and pretty soon that’s a whole lotta axions.

I, Tommy – I’m Naming the SI Unit of Momentum After Myself

I am just loving all the physics disruption here.

Everything has to have a name, right?

Planet Graboid. That’s it.

Update 4: I see Natalie Wolchover is shilling her crank article over at The Atlantic now too.

The must be really good. Maybe I should start shilling crank string theories.

I could win a breakthroughy truthiness prize some day!

Or pull in $7 million dollars of funding.

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Formal Gravitationally Induced Quantum Thermal Hall Effect

by Tommy on 30/11/2016

And here is the breakthrough. I’m cracking up. Again. Only formally now. Over.

https://arxiv.org/abs/1611.09463

Laughlin’s argument for the quantized thermal Hall effect, Ryota Nakai, Shinsei Ryu and Kentaro Nomura (29 November 2016)

We extend Laughlin’s magnetic-flux-threading argument to the quantized thermal Hall effect. A proper analogue of Laughlin’s adiabatic magnetic-flux threading process for the case of the thermal Hall effect is given in terms of an external gravitational field. From the perspective of the edge theories of quantum Hall systems, the quantized thermal Hall effect is closely tied to the breakdown of large diffeomorphism invariance, that is, a global gravitational anomaly. In addition, we also give an argument from the bulk perspective in which a free energy, decomposed into its Fourier modes, is adiabatically transferred under an adiabatic process involving external gravitational perturbations.

I can only suggest you give this a very careful reading.

Like I will do when I have the time.

I mean space. Or energy.

It doesn’t matter.

See also: http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1367-2630/18/2/023038

Finite-temperature effective boundary theory of the quantized thermal Hall effect, Ryota Nakai, Shinsei Ryu and Kentaro Nomura, New Journal of Physics, Volume 18 (10 February 2016)

A finite-temperature effective free energy of the boundary of a quantized thermal Hall system is derived microscopically from the bulk two-dimensional Dirac fermion coupled with a gravitational field. In two spatial dimensions, the thermal Hall conductivity of fully gapped insulators and superconductors is quantized and given by the bulk Chern number, in analogy to the quantized electric Hall conductivity in quantum Hall systems. From the perspective of effective action functionals, two distinct types of the field theory have been proposed to describe the quantized thermal Hall effect. One of these, known as the gravitational Chern–Simons action, is a kind of topological field theory, and the other is a phenomenological theory relevant to the Strěda formula. In order to solve this problem, we derive microscopically an effective theory that accounts for the quantized thermal Hall effect. In this paper, the two-dimensional Dirac fermion under a static background gravitational field is considered in equilibrium at a finite temperature, from which an effective boundary free energy functional of the gravitational field is derived. This boundary theory is shown to explain the quantized thermal Hall conductivity and thermal Hall current in the bulk by assuming the Lorentz symmetry. The bulk effective theory is consistently determined via the boundary effective theory.

So quantum gravity is something like a thermal gradient.

The takeaway is that gravitons are diffusive.

This article is open access.

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Theory of Learning Subjected to Stochastic Thermodynamics

by Tommy on 30/11/2016

It’s more costly to learn from stored information than it is to store that information.

https://arxiv.org/abs/1611.09428

Stochastic Thermodynamics of Learning, Sebastian Goldt and Udo Seifert (November 2016)

Virtually every organism gathers information about its noisy environment and builds models from that data, mostly using neural networks. Here, we use stochastic thermodynamics to analyse the learning of a classification rule by a neural network. We show that the information acquired by the network is bounded by the thermodynamic cost of learning and introduce a learning efficiency η ≤ 1. We discuss the conditions for optimal learning and analyse Hebbian learning in the thermodynamic limit.

Who is Udo Seifert again? Didn’t he just win a Breakthrough Prize?

Some things are difficult to forget.

It takes too much energy.

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Natural Orbital Theory for Electronic Structure Calculations

by Tommy on 30/11/2016

At first I thought this was Marvin L. Cohen, but as usual, I was wrong. It’s Morrel H. Cohen.

https://arxiv.org/abs/1611.08692

http://www.pnas.org/content/113/46/12913

A well-scaling natural orbital theory, Ralph Gebauer, Morrel H. Cohen and Roberto Car, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, PNAS, 113, 46, 12913-12918 (27 November 2016), DOI:10.1073/pnas.1615729113

Computations of locations of nuclei and movement of electrons within molecules and materials are widely used in science and technology. Direct computation of a system’s wave function for that purpose becomes impractical as system size grows. Current alternative methods can have difficulty with strongly correlated electron motion or spurious electron self-interaction. By using “natural spin-orbitals” to describe the motion of individual electrons, solving for them together with their joint and individual probabilities of occurrence within the system, we are able to account better for electron correlation when strong while avoiding self-interaction and maintaining the growth of computation cost with system size at the level of Hartree–Fock theory. Our numerical results for some small test molecules are very good.

We introduce an energy functional for ground-state electronic structure calculations. Its variables are the natural spin-orbitals of singlet many-body wave functions and their joint occupation probabilities deriving from controlled approximations to the two-particle density matrix that yield algebraic scaling in general, and Hartree-Fock scaling in its seniority-zero version. Results from the latter version for small molecular systems are compared with those of highly accurate quantum-chemical computations. The energies lie above full configuration interaction calculations, close to doubly occupied configuration interaction calculations. Their accuracy is considerably greater than that obtained from current density-functional theory approximations and from current functionals of the one-particle density matrix.

Same provenance, it seems.

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Aaron Blake Washington Post and Jeff Bezos’ Fascist Reporter

by Tommy on 29/11/2016

Donald Trump tweets that Americans protesting America, Americans and their American government should be relieved of their United States citizenship, and now a Washington Post reporter by the name of Aaron Blake, working for Jeff Bezos, seems ok with that. In his article on the issue he strives to minimize the United States Constitution’s opinions on such matters.

https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/the-fix/wp/2016/11/29/donald-trumps-position-on-flag-burning-isnt-really-all-that-controversial/

Donald Trump’s basic position on flag-burning isn’t really all that controversial

By Aaron Blake of the Washington Post, a newspaper owned by Jeff Bezos.

Hey Aaron, you know that Jeff Bezos reads this blog, right? Like every day?

Aaron Blake Washington Post Jeff Bezos' Fascist Reporter

Aaron Blake Washington Post Jeff Bezos’ Fascist Reporter

Get that Linkedin resume updated quickly, Aaron.

Responsible reporter you are not, Aaron Blake.

You’re just another American prick with a mic.

Your boss can take that mic away from you.

You are an embarrassment to journalism.

And you have also embarrassed me.

When that happens, I protest.

Directly to your employer.

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Yet Another Low Frequency Microwave Cavity Axion Detector

by Tommy on 29/11/2016

That might work, or not. You gotta start somewhere. I’m leaning towards a gravitational detector.

Unless someone beats me to it. Something ultrasensive to gravitational perturbations, like LIGO.

Gravity and gravitation have consequences, even for generic sterile axionic bosons at 100 μeV.

https://arxiv.org/abs/1611.07123

Design and Operational Experience of a Microwave Cavity Axion Detector for the 20-100 μeV Range, S. Al Kenany, M. A. Anil, K. M. Backes, B. M. Brubaker, S. B. Cahn, G. Carosi, Y. V. Gurevich, W. F. Kindel, S. K. Lamoreaux, K. W. Lehnert, S. M. Lewis, M. Malnou, D. A. Palken, N. M. Rapidis, J. R. Root, M. Simanovskaia, T. M. Shokair, I. Urdinaran, K. A. van Bibber and L. Zhong (22 November 2016)

We describe a dark matter axion detector designed, constructed, and operated both as an innovation platform for new cavity and amplifier technologies and as a data pathfinder in the 5−25 GHz range (∼ 20 − 100 μeV). The platform is small but flexible to facilitate the development of new microwave cavity and amplifier concepts in an operational environment. The experiment has recently completed its first data production; it is the first microwave cavity axion search to deploy a Josephson parametric amplifier and a dilution refrigerator to achieve near-quantum limited performance.

All hail the probe.

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Laws of Thermodynamics Rederived from a First Principle

by Tommy on 29/11/2016

So it turns out the universe is just work storage space for a spacetime gravitational energy field.

And we’re just work storage space for the universe.

https://arxiv.org/abs/1611.06614

Large Deviation implies First and Second Laws of Thermodynamics, Hiroyasu Tajima, Eyuri Wakakuwa and Tomohiro Ogawa (22 November 2016)

To reconstruct thermodynamics based on the microscopic laws is one of the most important unfulfilled goals of statistical physics. Here, we show that the first law and the second law for adiabatic processes are derived from an assumption that “probability distributions of energy in Gibbs states satisfy large deviation”, which is widely accepted as a property of thermodynamic equilibrium states. We define an adiabatic transformation as a probabilistic mixture of the energy-preserving unitary transformations on the many-body systems and the work storage. As the second law, we show that an adiabatic transformation from a set of Gibbs states to another set of Gibbs states is possible if and only if the regularized von Neumann entropy becomes large. As the first law, we show that the energy loss of the thermodynamic systems during the adiabatic transformation is stored in the work storage as “work,” in the following meaning; (i) the energy of the work storage takes certain values macroscopically, in the initial state and the final state. (ii) the entropy of the work storage in the final state is macroscopically equal to the entropy of the initial state. As corollaries, our results give the maximam work principle and the first law for the isothermal processes.

This is really a fine piece of work.

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Weyl Physics in FCC Topological Nodal Superfluids Simulated

by Tommy on 29/11/2016

Ok so maybe I can still slog through all this breakthroughyness.

Besides the Nature Physics pseudogap result, which got press before I even saw the ArXiv version tonight (that will require a separate post), there was the topological crystalline magnets (wouldn’t you know), and then this piece which goes with the previous Weyl semimetal work.

https://arxiv.org/abs/1611.08671

Weyl points and topological nodal superfluids in a face-centered cubic optical lattice, Li-Jun Lang, Shao-Liang Zhang, K. T. Law and Qi Zhou (26 November 2016)

We point out that a face-centered cubic (FCC) optical lattice, which can be realised by a simple scheme using three lasers, provides one a highly controllable platform for creating Weyl points and topological nodal superfluids in ultracold atoms. In non-interacting systems, Weyl points automatically arise in the Floquet band structure when shaking such FCC lattices, and sophisticated design of the tunnelling is not required. More interestingly, in the presence of attractive interaction between two hyperfine spin states, which experience the same shaken FCC lattice, a three-dimensional topological nodal superfluid emerges, and Weyl points show up as the gapless points in the quasiparticle spectrum. One could either create a double Weyl point of charge 2, or split it to two Weyl points of charge 1, which can be moved in the momentum space by tuning the interactions. Correspondingly, the Fermi arcs at the surface may be linked with each other or separated as individual ones.

These are all, of course, the cosmological simulations I am now looking for. That was fast.

I am now officially freaked out. Again.

I feel a song coming on …

Cool. I mean hot. No, now that I think about it, cool.

I change my mind a lot sometimes.

I’m still allowed to do that.

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Holographic Conformal Field Theory of Phonons Developed

by Tommy on 29/11/2016

So moving along it gets worse right away in a hurry, as far as more work that I now have to do.

I can’t believe how much trouble I have gotten myself into, and I only just discovered the axion.

https://arxiv.org/abs/1611.09344

A holographic perspective on phonons and pseudo-phonons, Andrea Amoretti, Daniel Arean, Riccardo Argurio, Daniele Musso and Leopoldo A. Pando Zayas (28 Novevember 2016)

We analyze the concomitant spontaneous breaking of translation and conformal symmetries by introducing in a CFT a complex scalar operator that acquires a spatially dependent expectation value. The model, inspired by the holographic Q-lattice, provides a privileged setup to study the emergence of phonons from a spontaneous translational symmetry breaking in a conformal field theory and offers valuable hints for the treatment of phonons in QFT at large. We first analyze the Ward identity structure by means of standard QFT techniques, considering both spontaneous and explicit symmetry breaking. Next, by implementing holographic renormalization, we show that the same set of Ward identities holds in the holographic Q-lattice. Eventually, relying on the holographic and QFT results, we study the correlators realizing the symmetry breaking pattern and how they encode information about the low-energy spectrum.

See also: https://arxiv.org/abs/1001.5212

http://www.mdpi.com/2073-8994/2/2/609

Spontaneous Symmetry Breaking and Nambu-Goldstone Bosons in Quantum Many-Body Systems, Tomas Brauner, Symmetry, 2, 609-657 (7 April 2010), DOI:10.3390/sym2020609

Spontaneous symmetry breaking is a general principle, that constitutes the underlying concept of a vast number of physical phenomena ranging from ferromagnetism and superconductivity in condensed matter physics to the Higgs mechanism in the standard model of elementary particles. I focus on manifestations of spontaneously broken symmetries in systems that are not Lorentz invariant, which include both, nonrelativistic systems as well as relativistic systems at nonzero density, providing a self-contained review of the properties of spontaneously broken symmetries specific to such theories. Topics covered include: (i) Introduction to the mathematics of spontaneous symmetry breaking and the Goldstone theorem. (ii) Minimization of Higgs-type potentials for higher-dimensional representations. (iii) Counting rules for Nambu-Goldstone bosons and their dispersion relations. (iv) Construction of effective Lagrangians. Specific examples in both relativistic and nonrelativistic physics are worked out in detail.

These are all long, comprehensive, significant, breakthroughy papers.

I especially like the latter’s handling of the screened Coulomb interaction.

There are a couple more papers tonight alone like this that I still have to read.

I have to warn you though, this is easily a couple of months work for a normal human.

Update: But since I was raised by aliens, I’m good to go. I’m unskilled and I’m aware of that.

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The Differential Topology of Weyl Semimetal Quantum Phases

by Tommy on 29/11/2016

Tuesday never lets me down on the ArXiv. Monday night.

This is something dear to my heart and I can actually read it.

Unfortunately this is really looking like at least several months work.

https://arxiv.org/abs/1611.08961

Differential topology of semimetals, Varghese Mathai and Guo Chuan Thiang (28 November 2016)

The subtle interplay between local and global charges for topological semimetals exactly parallels that for singular vector fields. Part of this story is the relationship between cohomological semimetal invariants, Euler structures, and ambiguities in the torsion of manifolds. Dually, semimetal invariants can be represented by Euler chains from which the surface Fermi arc connectivity can be deduced. These dual pictures, and the link to insulators, are organised using geometric exact sequences. We go beyond Dirac-type Hamiltonians and introduce new classes of semimetals whose local charges are subtle Atiyah-Dupont-Thomas invariants globally constrained by the Kervaire semicharacteristic, leading to the prediction of torsion Fermi arcs.

I like the way they talk about the decomposition of global and local charges. I can use that.

This is really good, but I haven’t read this kind of mathematics for a while.

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Early Cosmic Topology Modeled by Neutron Star Physics

by Tommy on 28/11/2016

This is as close to cosmogenesis physics as you are ever going to get.

https://arxiv.org/abs/1607.07266

3P2 Superfluids Are Topological, Takeshi Mizushima, Kota Masuda and Muneto Nitta (25 July 2016)

We clarify topology of 3P2 superfluids which are expected to be realized in the inner cores of neutron stars and cubic odd-parity superconductors. 3P2 phases include uniaxial/biaxial nematic phases and nonunitary ferromagnetic and cyclic phases. We here show that all the phases are accompanied by different types of topologically protected gapless fermions: Surface Majorana fermions in nematic phases and a quartet of (single) itinerant Majorana fermions in the cyclic (ferromagnetic) phase. Using the superfluid Fermi liquid theory, we also demonstrate that dihedral-two and -four biaxial nematic phases are thermodynamically favored in the weak coupling limit under a magnetic field. It is shown that the tricritical point exists on the phase boundary between these two phases and may be realized in the core of realistic magnetars. We unveil the intertwining of symmetry and topology behind mass acquisition of surface Majorana fermions in nematic phases.

But this is much closer than I thought I would ever get.

Bismuth iodide anyone?

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Theory of Electron Confinement in Superconductors Resolved

by Tommy on 28/11/2016

And of course it gets even better very quickly.

https://arxiv.org/abs/1611.06347

Meissner effect and a stringlike interaction, Chandrasekhar Chatterjee, Ishita Dutta Choudhury and Amitabha Lahiri (19 November 2016)

We find that a recently proposed interaction involving the vorticity current of electrons, which radiatively induces a photon mass in 3+1 dimensions in the low-energy effective theory, corresponds to confining strings (linear potential) between electrons.

Beautiful math and a beautiful result, what more can I say.

Things are really coming together.

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Non-Abelian Majorana Modes in 4D Weyl Physics Explored

by Tommy on 28/11/2016

Speaking of those Majorana monopoles, what a coincidence …

https://arxiv.org/abs/1611.08516

Non-Abelian Majorana modes protected by an emergent second Chern number, Cheung Chan and Xiong-Jun liu (November 2016)

The search for topological superconductors and non-Abelian Majorana modes ranks among the most fascinating topics in condensed matter physics. There now exist several fundamental superconducting phases which host symmetry protected or chiral Majorana modes. The latter, namely the chiral Majorana modes are protected by Chern numbers in even dimensions. Here we propose to observe novel chiral Majorana modes by realizing Fulde-Ferrell-Larkin-Ovchinnikov state, i.e. the pairing density wave (PDW) phase in a Weyl semimetal which breaks time-reversal symmetry. Without symmetry protection, the 3D gapped PDW phase is topologically trivial. However, a vortex line generated in such phase can host chiral Majorana modes, which are shown to be protected by an emergent second Chern number of a synthetic 4D space generalized from the PDW phase. We further show that these chiral modes in the vortex rings obey non-Abelian loop-braiding statistics, which can be applied to topological quantum computation.

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Axion Particle Interactions at Ultra High Energies Proposed

by Tommy on 28/11/2016

Ok, tonight the very first paper on the ArXiv is breakthroughy.

https://arxiv.org/abs/1611.08384

On the PeV knee of cosmic rays spectrum and TeV cutoff of electron spectrum, Chao Jin, Wei Liu, Hong-Bo Hu and Yi-Qing Guo (25 November 2016)

The origin of the cosmic-ray knee has remained a puzzle since its discovery over 60 years. In addition, Some latest experiments have revealed a spectral cutoff of the electron around 1 TeV. We find these two spectral breaks have a similar Lorentz factor ∼106, and interpret this similarity with a threshold interaction induced by a new particle X abundant in the Galaxy. The interaction process CR + X ⟶ CR + X′ can take place when the effective energy is sufficient to convert it into the mass of another unknown particle X′ (as a representative to all possible threshold inelastic interactions), where the mass of X′ is 106 higher than that of the X with respect to the above mentioned common Lorentz factor. Thus cosmic rays will lose their energy above the threshold and produce a spectral break. Under this scenario, we can reproduce the spectral break for both the nuclei and electron, and predict a flattened spectrum for electrons after the cutoff. Given that there are uncertainties of experiments in determining the actual spectra of these breaks and their components, our model allows a wide mass range of the particle X from ultra low value to around 1 eV.

So there are either several bosons or their mass is excitation dependent.

It’s quite possible that they could be Majorana pairs as well.

Hey buddy, wanna buy a cheap breakthrough?

No sir, these breakthroughs aren’t hot.

I bought then at a pawn shop.

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Carnot Efficiency in Irreversible Processes Discussed

by Tommy on 27/11/2016

I’m not sure about this but I love this kind of stuff.

That’s as far as I’m willing to go until I grok it.

https://arxiv.org/abs/1611.07665

Carnot efficiency is attainable in an irreversible process, Jae Sung Lee and Hyunggyu Park (23 November 2016)

In thermodynamics, there exists a conventional belief that “the Carnot efficiency is reachable only when a process is reversible.” However, there is no theorem proving that the Carnot efficiency is impossible in an irreversible process. Here, we show that the Carnot efficiency is attainable in an irreversible process through investigation of the Feynman-Smoluchowski ratchet (FSR). Thus, this finding gives us a new possibility to develop a novel design of thermodynamic engines with high efficiency regardless of the reversibility. Our result also answers the long-standing question of whether the Carnot efficiency is possible in the FSR.

Myself, I’m just going for the 50%.

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Statistics of Non Equilibrium Fermion Systems Confirmed

by Tommy on 26/11/2016

Yay for science!

https://arxiv.org/abs/1611.07546

Local entropy of a nonequilibrium fermion system, Charles A. Stafford and Abhay Shastry (22 November 2016)

The local entropy of a nonequilibrium system of independent fermions is investigated, and analyzed in the context of the laws of thermodynamics. It is shown that the local temperature and chemical potential can only be expressed in terms of derivatives of the local entropy for linear deviations from local equilibrium. The first law of thermodynamics is shown to lead to an inequality, not an equality, for the change in the local entropy as the nonequilibrium state of the system is changed. The maximum entropy principle (second law of thermodynamics) is proven: a nonequilibrium distribution has a local entropy less than or equal to a local equilibrium distribution satisfying the same constraints. It is shown that the local entropy of the system tends to zero when the local temperature tends to zero, consistent with the third law of thermodynamics.

Now what? Oh, yeah, the bosons.

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Out of Equilibrium Bose-Einstein Condensate Statistics

by Tommy on 26/11/2016

Here is something that really caught my eye.

https://arxiv.org/abs/1611.07553

Uncertainty product of an out-of-equilibrium Bose-Einstein condensate, Shachar Klaiman, Alexej I. Streltsov and Ofir E. Alon (22 November 2016)

The variance and uncertainty product of the position and momentum many-particle operators of structureless bosons interacting by a long-range inter-particle interaction and trapped in a single-well potential are investigated. In the first example, of an out-of-equilibrium interaction-quench scenario, it is found that, despite the system being fully condensed, already when a fraction of a particle is depleted differences with respect to the mean-field quantities emerge. In the second example, of the pathway from condensation to fragmentation of the ground state, we find out that, although the cloud’s density broadens while the system’s fragments, the position variance actually decreases, the momentum variance increases, and the uncertainty product is not a monotonous function but has a maximum. Implication are briefly discussed.

Dark. Really dark.

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Simulating Dynamical Time-Reversal Symmetry Breaking

by Tommy on 26/11/2016

Grok this, will ya.

https://arxiv.org/abs/1611.07964

Dynamical Time-Reversal Symmetry Breaking and Photo-Induced Chiral Spin Liquids in Frustrated Mott Insulators, Martin Claassen, Hong-Chen Jiang, Brian Moritz and Thomas P. Devereaux, (23 November 2016)

We show that optical pumping of frustrated Mott insulators with circularly-polarized light drives an effective spin system across a phase transition and into a transient chiral spin liquid (CSL). Starting from a Kagome Hubbard model deep in the Mott phase, circular polarization promotes a scalar spin chirality Si⋅(Sj × Sk) term directly to the Hamiltonian level, dynamically breaking time-reversal while preserving SU(2) spin symmetry. We find that the transient physics is well-captured by an effective Floquet spin model, fingerprint its phase diagram, and find a stable photo-induced CSL in close proximity to the equilibrium state. The results presented suggest a new avenue of employing dynamical symmetry breaking to engineer quantum spin liquids and access elusive phase transitions that are not readily accessible in equilibrium.

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Axions are Goldstone Bosons in Horndeski Gravity Theories

by Tommy on 25/11/2016

Horndeski gravity theories are basically extended (tensor) vector scalar theories of gravity, which reduce to Einstein gravity when you eliminate the resulting Goldstone bosons via the inverse Higgs effect in these obviously non-linear mathematical representations. So in this case, quantum cosmology reduces to identifying the correct version of Horndeski gravity, in other words, where are the higher derivatives truncated, and what is the nature of the various Goldstone bosons that result from those truncations. When this non-linear phenomenon reduces to the dark matter cosmic QCD axions as gravitational bosons, in addition to the Peccie-Quinn field at high energy, there are numerous other couplings at lower energy, those that we all know and love in condensed matter physics realizations and simulations at much lower energies. Given the nearly vanishing neutron electric dipole moment, this includes, of course, the superfluidity of liquid helium, photon coupling across all energy scales, electroweak coupling at higher energies, and with gravity – gravitational scale in Minkowski and Euclidean space involving Galilean symmetries, curvature with Lorentzian symmetries, and ultimately with black holes, the topology of spacetime itself. With the standard model, we are dealing with Lie algebras and other continuous symmetries, obviously, which locally reduce to discrete space point group symmetries (algebraic symmetries). In order to make any complete sense of all of this, one must ultimately resort to mathematical representation theories. So now that I have identified the cosmic QCD axions, the next step is deriving their correct quantum field theory.

The universe is clearly scale invariant across all energy scales.

As with Einstein gravity, I want the simplest theory that works.

This can now be tested in the laboratory and observationally.

http://lifeform.net/archimedes/Inverse_Higgs_Ivanov.pdf

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Helium States as a Universal Cosmic Simulator Environment

by Tommy on 23/11/2016

Last night was helium night on the ArXiv. All hail the chief.

https://arxiv.org/abs/1611.07456

Helium atom excitations by the GW and Bethe-Salpeter many-body formalism, Jing Li, Markus Holzmann, Ivan Duchemin, Xavier Blase and Valerio Olevano (22 November 2016)

Helium atom is the simplest many-body electronic system provided by nature. The exact solution to the Schrödinger equation is known for helium ground and excited states, and represents a workbench for any many-body methodology. Here we check ab initio many-body GW approximation and Bethe-Salpeter equation (BSE) against helium exact solution. Starting from Hartree-Fock, we show that GW and BSE yield impressingly accurate results on excitation energies and oscillator strength. These findings suggest that the accuracy of BSE and GW approximations is not significantly limited by self-interaction and self-screening problems even in this few electron limit. We further discuss our results in comparison to those obtained by time-dependent density-functional theory.

So that was great fun and highly enlightening. It gets much better!

See also: https://arxiv.org/abs/1611.07273

On Nambu’s Fermion-Boson Relations for Superfluid -B, J. A. Sauls and Takeshi Mizushima (22 November 2016)

Superfluid 3He is a spin-triplet (S=1), p-wave (L=1) BCS condensate of Cooper pairs with total angular momentum J=0 in the ground state. In addition to the breaking of U(1) gauge symmetry, separate spin or orbital rotation symmetry is broken to the maximal sub-group, SO(3)S×SO(3)L→SO(3)J. The Fermions acquire mass, mF≡Δ, where Δ is the BCS gap. There are also 18 Bosonic excitations – 4 Nambu-Goldstone (NG) modes and 14 massive amplitude Higgs (AH) modes. The Bosonic modes are labelled by the total angular momentum, J∈{0,1,2}, and parity under particle-hole symmetry, C=±1. For each pair of angular momentum quantum numbers, J,Jz, there are two Bosonic partners with C=±1. Based this spectrum Nambu proposed a sum rule connecting the Fermion and Boson masses for BCS type theories, which for 3He-B is M2J++M2J−=4m2F for each family of Bosonic modes labelled by J, where MJC is the mass of the Bosonic mode with quantum numbers (J,C). Nambu’s sum rule (NSR) has recently been discussed in the context of Nambu-Jona-Lasinio models for physics beyond the standard model to speculate on possible partners to the recently discovered Higgs Boson at higher energies. Here we point out that Nambu’s Fermion-Boson mass relations are not exact. Corrections to the Bosonic masses from (i) leading order strong-coupling corrections to BCS theory, and (ii) polarization of the parent Fermionic vacuum lead to violations of the sum-rule. Results for these mass corrections are given in both the T→0 and T→Tc limits. We also discuss experimental results, and theoretical analysis, for the masses of the JC=2± Higgs modes and the magnitude of the violation of the NSR.

It has become too difficult and time consuming for me to continue to cover breakthroughiness.

Especially when I am dealing with my own breakthroughy truthinesses coming fast and furious.

I’ll need an artificial quantum intelligence Tommy if I’m going to keep up with the breakthroughs.

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Excitonic Plasma Confirmed Inside the Quantum Pseudogap

by Tommy on 23/11/2016

This alternative study confirms the existence of the excitonic plasma in the pseudogap.

https://arxiv.org/abs/1611.07023

A Holographic Model for Pseudogap in BCS-BEC Crossover (I): Pairing Fluctuations, Double-Trace Deformation and Dynamics of Bulk Bosonic Fluid, Oliver DeWolfe, Oscar Henriksson and Chaolun Wu (21 November 2016)

We build a holographic model for the pairing fluctuation pseudogap phase in fermionic high temperature superconductivity/superfluidity based on the BCS-BEC crossover scenario. The pseudogap originates from incoherent Cooper pairing and has been observed in recent cold atom experiments. The strength of Cooper pairing and hence the BCS-BEC crossover is controlled by an effective 4-Fermi interaction and we argue that the double-trace deformation for charged scalar operator is a close analog in large N field theories. We employ the double-trace deformed Abelian Higgs model of holographic superconductors and propose that the incoherent fluctuations of the charged scalar in the bulk is the holographic dual of the fluctuating Cooper pairs. Using a Madelung transformation and the velocity-potential formalism, we develop a quantum fluid dynamics as an effective theory for these bulk fluctuations. The new fluid dynamics takes care of the boundary conditions required by AdS/CFT and encodes the vacuum polarization effect in curved spacetime. The pseudogap in conductivity can be related to the plasma oscillation of this bulk fluid.

This paper is deeply revealing and directly applicable to quantum cosmology.

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Curvatronics in Bilayer Graphene as a 4D Spacetime

by Tommy on 23/11/2016

This is another one that I just have to more or less regurgitate verbatim. Enjoy!

https://arxiv.org/abs/1611.06254

Curvatronics with bilayer graphene in an effective 4D spacetime, M. Cariglia, R. Giambò and A. Perali (17 Novenber 2016)

We show that in AB stacked bilayer graphene low energy excitations around the semimetallic points are described by massless, four dimensional Dirac fermions. There is an effective reconstruction of the 4 dimensional spacetime, including in particular the dimension perpendicular to the sheet, that arises dynamically from the physical graphene sheet and the interactions experienced by the carriers. The effective spacetime is the Eisenhart-Duval lift of the dynamics experienced by Galilei invariant Levy-Leblond spin 1/2 particles near the Dirac points. We find that changing the intrinsic curvature of the bilayer sheet induces a change in the energy level of the electronic bands, switching from a conducting regime for negative curvature to an insulating one when curvature is positive. In particular, curving graphene bilayers allows opening or closing the energy gap between conduction and valence bands, a key effect for electronic devices. Thus using curvature as a tunable parameter opens the way for the beginning of curvatronics in bilayer graphene.

Groovy.

See also: https://arxiv.org/abs/1611.06410

Spatially-indirect Exciton Condensate Phases in Double Bilayer Graphene, Jung-Jung Su and Allan H. MacDonald (19 November 2016)

We present a theory of spatially indirect exciton condensate states in systems composed of a pair of electrically isolated Bernal graphene bilayers. The ground state phase diagram in a two-dimensional displacement-field/inter-bilayer-bias space includes layer-polarized semiconductors, spin-density-wave states, exciton condensates, and states with mixed excitonic and spin order. We find that two different condensate states, distinguished by a chirality index, are stable under different electrical control conditions.

Super interesting stuff.

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Dark Matter Initiated Faint Dwarf Galaxy Satellite Discovered

by Tommy on 22/11/2016
Faint Dark Matter Induced Satellite Galaxy Blob Virgo 1

Faint Dark Matter Induced Satellite Galaxy Blob Virgo 1

https://arxiv.org/abs/1609.04346v2

http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.3847/0004-637X/832/1/21/meta

A New Milky Way Satellite Discovered In The Subaru/Hyper Suprime-Cam Survey, Daisuke Homma, Masashi Chiba, Sakurako Okamoto, Yutaka Komiyama, Masayuki Tanaka, Mikito Tanaka, Miho N. Ishigaki, Masayuki Akiyama, Nobuo Arimoto, Jose A. Garmilla, Robert H. Lupton, Michael A. Strauss, Hisanori Furusawa, Satoshi Miyazaki, Hitoshi Murayama, Atsushi J. Nishizawa, Masahiro Takada, Tomonori Usuda and Shiang-Yu Wang, The Astrophysical Journal, 832, 1 (14 November 2016)

We report the discovery of a new ultra-faint dwarf satellite companion of the Milky Way based on the early survey data from the Hyper Suprime-Cam Subaru Strategic Program. This new satellite, Virgo I, which is located in the constellation of Virgo, has been identified as a statistically significant (5.5 sigma) spatial overdensity of star-like objects with a well-defined main sequence and red giant branch in their color-magnitude diagram. The significance of this overdensity increases to 10.8 sigma when the relevant isochrone filter is adopted for the search. Based on the distribution of the stars around the likely main sequence turn-off at r ~ 24 mag, the distance to Virgo I is estimated as 87 kpc, and its most likely absolute magnitude calculated from a Monte Carlo analysis is MV = -0.8 +/- 0.9 mag. This stellar system has an extended spatial distribution with a half-light radius of 38 +12/-11 pc, which clearly distinguishes it from a globular cluster with comparable luminosity. Thus, Virgo I is one of the faintest dwarf satellites known and is located beyond the reach of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. This demonstrates the power of this survey program to identify very faint dwarf satellites. This discovery of Virgo I is based only on about 100 square degrees of data, thus a large number of faint dwarf satellites are likely to exist in the outer halo of the Milky Way.

It seems like there are lots of irregular clouds of diffuse dark matter swishing around out there.

The question is, what happens when it gets close to dense high energy objects.

I have some very specific mathematically precise ideas on that subject.

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